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Identification of common congenital malformations

Congenital malformations - PubMe

Congenital malformations are single or multiple defects of the morphogenesis of organs or body districts identifiable at birth or during the intrauterine life. Their global birth prevalence is about 2-3%. Both genetic and environmental factors, as well as their combination in a multifactorial contest, may induce congenital defects The two most common genetic causes of congenital anomalies are single-gene defects and chromosomal abnormalities. Single-gene defects are caused by changes (mutations) in the structure of genes. These are responsible for slightly over 17% of congenital anomalies (48)

The most common, severe congenital anomalies are heart defects, neural tube defects and Down syndrome. Although congenital anomalies may be the result of one or more genetic, infectious, nutritional or environmental factors, it is often difficult to identify the exact causes. Some congenital anomalies can be prevented The common birth defects include congenital heart disease (8-10 per 1000 live births), congenital deafness (5.6-10 per 1000 live births), and neural tube defects (4-11.4 per 1000 live births) (March of Dimes report, 2006). Some birth defects are clinically apparent at birth; others may only be diagnosed later in life CONGENITAL ANOMALIES: IDENTIFICATION AND CARE IN NEWBORN PERIOD Congenital Anomaly Nursing Assessments Nursing Goals and Interventions Congenital hydrocephalus Choanal atresia Cleft lip Cleft palate Tracheoesophageal fistula (type 3) Assess presence of hydrocephalus: Measure and plot occipital-fronta

1.4 Congenital Anomalies - Definitions. Congenital anomalies comprise a wide range of abnormalities of body structure or function that are present at birth and are of prenatal origin. For efficiency and practicality, the focus is commonly on major structural anomalies. These are defined as structural changes that have significant medical. The common malformations with distinctive patterns of clustering in families, such as cleft palate alone, cleft lip and palate, anencephaly, myelomeningocele, hypospadias, many common heart defects, congenital hip dysplasia, etc., were assigned to the category of multifactorial inheritance. They were combined with other common malformations

Appendix C Surveillance Manual Birth Defects NCBDDD

Congenital anomalies - WH

Common Types of Heart Defects Congenital heart defects are structural problems arising from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels. At least 18 distinct types of congenital heart defects are recognized, with many additional anatomic variations Congenital Malformations: Anenceplhaly Microcephaly Megalencephaly Septo-Optic Dysplasia Diastomatomyelia Polymycrogyria Encephalocele Spina bifida 3

ArticleCopy-Number Disorders Are a Common Cause of Congenital Kidney Malformations. Copy-Number Disorders Are a Common Cause of Congenital Kidney Malformations. We examined the burden of large, rare, copy-number variants (CNVs) in 192 individuals with renal hypodysplasia (RHD) and replicated findings in 330 RHD cases from two independent cohorts Congenital craniofacial abnormalities are a group of defects caused by abnormal growth and/or development of the head and facial soft-tissue structures and/or bones. (See also Introduction to Congenital Craniofacial and Musculoskeletal Disorders .) Various craniofacial abnormalities (CFA) result from maldevelopment of the 1st and 2nd visceral. A congenital malformation is any physical defect that presents during fetal development at birth after developing in-utero. These malformations can involve the hands, wrists, elbows, and arms, as well as the heart, gastrointestinal tract, blood, chest, spine, and legs, among others. Congenital malformations of the upper extremities can range in. The most common serious congenital disorders are congenital heart defects, neural tube defects and Down syndrome. Haemoglobinophathies (including thalassaemia and sickle-cell disease) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, which are not covered by the ICD-10 definition of congenital anomalies, account for 6% of all congenital. The common congenital anomalies are cardiovascular anomalies, congenital anomalies of the central nervous system, fetal thoracic anomalies, abdominal wall defects, kidney and urinary tract defects, and esophageal, gastrointestinal, and anorectal abnormalities. Different defects require particular assessment, evaluation and care

Major congenital malformations occur in approximately 2-3% of all pregnancies. Fetal ultrasound is routinely used in prenatal care in developed countries, and approximately 1% of these scans reveal some form of structural congenital anomaly (SCA) [].Because SCAs are associated with genetic aberrations, the common practice is to offer fetal karyotyping either by chorionic villus sampling (CVS. Functional congenital malformations: Refers to when there is a problem in the chemical composition of the body, as happens with those that affect the nervous, metabolic or immune system. The most well-known are Down's syndrome, deafness, blindness, congenital hypothyroidism or Tay-Sachs disease 1. CONGENITAL ANOMALIES 2. • It includes all biochemical,structural and functional disorders present at the birth. CONGENITAL ANOMALY: • It include only the structural defects present at the birth. CONGENITAL MALFORMATION: 3. Global incidence - About 30 to 70/1000 live birth. In India - 2.5 to 4 % Most common type of birth defect-CNS.

myelomeningocele is an obvious open malformation, the identification of which is not usually difficult. However, the relationship between congenital spinal cord malformations and other cutaneous malformations, such as dimples, vascular anomalies (including infantile hemangiomata and other vascular malformations) The UK pregnancy register combined minor and major malformations in their analysis, and reported a 16.8% risk of having another child with such congenital malformations if the first child was affected, compared with 9.8% risk for women whose first child did not have a malformation . Unfortunately, these studies could not assess the recurrence. Left aortic arch with aberrant right subclavian artery is the most common congenital anomaly of the aortic arch with a prevalence of 0.5%-2% (14). This anomaly results from regression of the right arch (between the right common carotid and right subclavian arteries) including the right ductus arteriosus (Fig 6) Congenital Malformations Registry Summary Report Author: New York State Department of Health - Center for Environmental Health Subject: Presents rates of congenital malformations occurring among the 1,024,714 children who were born alive to New York residents in 1998-2001 Keywords: cmr, congenital, malformations, registry, children Created Dat

Congenital anomalies (birth defects) Diagnosis and

  1. Description Congenital anomalies also known as birth defects, congenital disorders or congenital malformations are usually structural or functional in nature. They are identified prenatally, at birth, or sometimes may only be detected later in infancy
  2. Introduction. Congenital anomalies are considered as leading cause of fetal and neonatal death and of childhood morbidity (Pharoah, 2005).Based on 3% of the estimated 135 million births that occur yearly, more than 10 000 children are estimated to be born daily with congenital anomalies worldwide (Botto et al., 2004).Congenital anomalies can be attributable to intrinsic errors in a structural.
  3. e whether prenatal cocaine exposure results in an increased number or identifiable pattern of abnormalities. Design. A prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled between 1991 and 1993. Setting. Rural public health population delivering at a regional tertiary medical center
  4. Explanation of congenital abnormalities by totemic identification is also common. Most common mammals, reptiles and fish are totem animals for extended family groups; again, the scope for linking a particular malformation with a specific totemic animal is very wide. Examples are given in Appendix 1
  5. In 2010, congenital anomalies accounted for approximately 270,000 neonatal deaths in 193 countries. Congenital anomalies — commonly referred to as birth defects — include congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities. Heart defects, neural tube defects, and Down syndrome are the most common congenital anomalies

1.4 Congenital Anomalies - Definitions CD

Congenital Malformations Recognition of birth defects caused by thalidomide Thalidomide is a teratogenic drug, meaning that when taken while pregnant, it can have terrible impacts on fetal development and cause irreversible damages Epidemiological analysis of outcomes of pregnancy in diabetic mothers: identification of the most characteristic and most frequent congenital anomalies. Am J Med Genet 1994;51:108-13. 17. Ray JG, Vermeulen MJ, Meier C, Wyatt PR. Risk of congenital anomalies detected during antenatal serum screening in women with pregestational diabetes It should be emphasized that accurate pathological identification of malformation and malformation syndromes is an essential step in identifying aetiological factors, and one where the pathologist has a large part to play. Carter CO (1965) The inheritance of common congenital malformations. Prog Med Genet 4: 59 PubMed (1976) Descriptive.

Comprehensive investigation of congenital anomalies in

1) Understanding the classification of congenital brain malformations, particularly cortical malformations. 2) Comprehension of the genetic undertones of congenital brain malformations. 3) Ability to identify imaging appearance of common cortical malformations on brain MR imaging A separate study for deep and superficial lymphatic drainage systems is necessary to identify the location and extent of the malformations. Anomalies of the deep lymphatic trunks, such as aplasia or hypoplasia in segments or even the whole vessel, are the most common lymphatic malformations recognized in Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (Figure 9)

A congenital malformation is an anatomical or structural abnormality present at birth. Congenital malformations may be caused by genetic factors or environmental insults or a combination of the two that occur during prenatal development. Most common congenital malformations demonstrat congenital malformation, and the most common subgroup was for congenital heart defects (n=20 074; 1.6%). Compared with offspring of normal weight mothers (risk of malformations 3.4%), the proportions and adjusted risk ratios of any major congenital malformation among the offspring of mothers with higher BMI were Congenital malformations are defects or abnormalities in the baby's body that develop during pregnancy. There are more than 4000 types of congenital malformations, and they are categorised into two main groups: Structural congenital malformations: Those in which the baby is born without a part of the body or they have a malformation in that part Here are eight of the most common types of congenital heart defects: 1. Ventricular septal defect. Ventricular septal defect occurs in 2 to 7 percent of all live births and accounts for about 20. Key points Educational aims The first hours and days of life are of crucial importance for the newborn infant as the infant adapts to the extra-uterine environment. The newborn infant is vulnerable to a range of respiratory diseases, many unique to this period of early life as the developing fluid-filled fetal lungs adapt to the extrauterine environment

1. Introduction. Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include a wide range of structural malformations resulting from defects in the morphogenesis of the kidney and of the urinary tract [1,2,3,4].They are the most common form of malformations at birth, affecting 3-7 out of 1000 live births [] and representing more than 20% of birth defects [] incomplete fusion or malformation of bone and neural structures of the spine region by errors in closure of the neural tube i.e. spina bifida What is the most common congenital abnormality of the spine The most common cyanotic congenital heart disease is tetralogy of Fallot, which is twice as prevalent as transposition of the great arteries (4.7 vs. 2.3/10 000 births). Overall, bicuspid aortic valves are the most common congenital defects with a prevalence reported to be as high as 0.5% to 2.0%

PPT - Communication disorders in young children PowerPoint

Congenital Brain and Spinal Cord Malformations and Their

Identify congenital anomalies of the pulmonary arteries in the adult patient at radiography and CT. •. Right heart disease is a common and expected secondary finding of pulmonary hypertension; the increased workload borne by the right heart results in right-sided cardiac enlargement and hypertrophy Congenital malformations affect approximately 2- 3% of all live births every year (Whiteman et al, 1994; Atlas et al, 1985). Congenital brain anomalies, wh ether they are isolated (single) or part of syndromes, are a common cause of medical intervention, long-term illness, and death. The neonatologist or perinatologist often is the first person. Objective To estimate the risks of major congenital malformations in the offspring of mothers who are underweight (body mass index (BMI) <18.5), overweight (BMI 25 to <30), or in obesity classes I (BMI 30 to <35), II (35 to <40), or III (≥40) compared with offspring of normal weight mothers (BMI 18.5 to <25) in early pregnancy. Design Population based cohort study Congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) are one of the most common malformations diagnosed in newborns. The pathogenesis of CAKUT is multifactorial; both specific genes and environmental factors (e.g., in utero exposure to ACE inhibitors) have been implicated in the development of CAKUT Prenatal diagnosis for congenital malformations and genetic disorders. Segregation of haplotypes for 10 markers (M1-M10) in a family. Diseased haplotype, as indicated by red bars, is shared by all of the affected individuals (filled circles and squares) and by none of the unaffected individuals (unfilled circles and squares)

Prenatal Biochemical and Ultrasound Markers in Chromosomal

  1. Uterine malformations make up a diverse group of congenital anomalies that can result from various alterations in the normal development of the Müllerian ducts. In the majority of these cases, the cause of a congenital uterine anomaly is unknown. Most women with these malformations have a normal number of chromosomes
  2. The purpose of this study is to use Whole Exome Sequencing (WES) to identify genetic variants in patients and families who have received care for VACTERL syndrome or congenital malformations at the Mayo Clinic. Additionally, to perform RNA Sequencing and targeted metabolomics analysis to identify alterations in gene expression and metabolites.
  3. ence, and symmetry. 2. Identify common congenital ear deformities, including pro
  4. e miscarriage. The most frequent prenatal chromosomal anomalies are X monosomy, trisomies of chromosomes 21, 18, 13, 16, 8, triploidy and tetraploidy. Identification of chromosomal anomalies can be done by prenatal screening and diagnosis. Prenatal screening is biochemical, sonographic or.
  5. Major congenital anomalies or malformations are structural defects, present at birth, that have a significant effect on function or social acceptability (Ameri-can College of Medical Genetics, 1999). Examples include find-ings such as cleft lip and palate, spina bifida or gastroschisis. Minor congenital anomalies occur in less than 4 percent of th
  6. ators are required. miRs regulate gene expression in humans and therefore have potentially therapeutic and biomarker properties. No studies thus far have attempted to explore the miRs in human CAKUT
  7. The purpose of this paper is to review the range of fetal spine anomalies and their management, with the goal of improving the clinician's ability to counsel expectant parents prenatally. Key Words: Prenatal ultrasound, In utero magnetic resonance imaging, Prenatal counseling, Congenital spinal anomalies

Common Types of Heart Defects American Heart Associatio

The clinical spectrum of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) encompasses a common birth defect in humans that has significant impact on long-term patient survival. Overall, data indicate that approximately 20% of patients may have a genetic disorder that is usually not detected based on standard clinical evaluation. Congenital heart defects range in severity from simple problems, such as holes between chambers of the heart, to very severe malformations, such as the complete absence of one or more chambers or valves. Associated conditions. A congenital heart defect can increase your risk for certain medical conditions, including: Pulmonary hypertensio

Congenital heart malformation (CHM) is the most common form of congenital human birth anomaly and is the leading cause of infant mortality. Although some causative genes have been identified. Identification of molecular signals that guide sequential development of organs and organ systems, coupled with molecular diagnostic tools and genomic testing, allow a more detailed understanding of many observed congenital anomalies. It is likely that as these technologies improve, the etiology of other conditions will be clarified Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) is a benign lung lesion that appears before birth as a cyst or mass in the chest. It is made up of abnormal lung tissue that does not function properly, but continues to grow. CCAM is also frequently referred to as a congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) Summary. Structural anomalies of the female genital tract may be present at birth or may be acquired later in life. Common congenital anomalies of the female genital tract are an imperforate hymen and anomalies of Müllerian duct fusion.Impaired fusion of the Müllerian ducts can result in duplication of the uterus, cervix, and/or vagina, while incomplete fusion results in an intrauterine and.

Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation. Incidence 1:8,300 to 1:35,000 live births. Cystic and adenomatous lesions arise from the tracheobronchial tree. Maldevelopment of terminal bronchiolar structures. Unilateral. Lower lung lobe. Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation is the second most common congenital lung lesion in children A multifactoral type where a combination of genetic and environmental factors leads to a malformation is deemed to be the most common cause of congenital eye anomalies. The genetic causes may have a risk of repeating themselves in the children of affected patients. This is why the identification of malformations is highly important for the. The main objective of the study is to develop a prognostic model for estimating the risk of neonatal respiratory distress in children with prenatally diagnosed congenital pulmonary malformation. The study will be offered to all pregnant women referred to a Center for Prenatal Diagnosis (CPD), due to the identification of a congenital lung.

Dr. Laurie Barclay discusses a new study investigating the risk for congenital malformations in children of mothers exposed to valproic acid during the first trimester of pregnancy Finally, many different teratogens can cause the same malformation ‹ microcephaly is an example -- and such common malformations may also have genetic causes. So it usually takes the coming together of luck, astute observation by one or more individuals, and the presence of a rare abnormality to identify a teratogenic substance Congenital abnormalities, called malformations, are conditions affecting the form and function of the nervous system. There are numerous variations of congenital malformations of the bone and soft tissue of the head and spine, including neural tube defects, such as spina bifida, encephaloceles, Chiari malformations and arachnoid cysts

PPT - Early Identification of Those With Dual Sensory

Congenital malformations - SlideShar

Purpose of Review: Intracranial congenital malformations are anomalies of brain development caused by genetic and environmental influences. This article discusses common intracranial congenital malformations, presents the associated neuroimaging findings, and discusses how appropriate identification of intracranial anomalies can impact diagnosis and treatment 3. Morphogenesis of congenital malformations of the urogenital tract, and short-term and long-term evaluation of their reconstructive corrections (with participation of the Departments of Urology and Psychiatry). The results will add to: - improvement of the identification and classification of these malformations

Malformations were four times more common in stillbirths (71 out of 561). A higher number of anomalies were observed in low birth weight babies, especially those small for gestational age. There was no significant difference in congenital malformations according to maternal age, birth order, gender, or maternal undernutrition or anemia Vascular malformations are rare with some types found in less than 1 percent of the population. If you have one, chances are it developed before you were born—many types of vascular malformations don't cause symptoms until they are triggered by such events as adolescence, pregnancy, or some major surgery, trauma or injury

The most common anomalies diagnosed in the first trimester were presented in table 3. Table 4 show the relation between folic acid intake in first trimester and the rate of anomalies diagnosed in the second trimester. There were 18 cases (32.7%) who did not take folic acid at all developed congenital anomalies 3.A. Congenital Anomalies 3.A.1. Assess aortic arch anomalies (e.g., coarctation, interruption, anomalous branching patterns) Be familiar with common forms of congenital heart disease Recognize common conotruncal defects and associated findings Know the utility of and be able to optimize two-dimensional imaging, color Doppler, and spectral. 2.2 Congenital anomalies associated with craniofacial anomalies Cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, (CL/P) and isolated cleft palate (CP) are frequently associated with other major congenital malformations. It has been reported that about 20% of liveborn infants with facial clefts have associated malformations, and the figure is much. The knowledge of airway anatomy is the most fundamental requirement of every bronchoscopist. There are numerous and frequent anatomic variations of the central airways making the examination unique for every individual. It is imperative for every bronchoscopist to be fully cognizant of the common congenital anomalies involving the central airways. Proper identification and reporting of these. Also known as: congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, CAKUT, congenital genitourinary anomalies, bladder anomalies, congenital urogenital malformations What are congenital anomalies of the urinary tract? Congenital anomalies of the urogenital tract, are a broad group of common, mild to life-threatening malformations (approx. 30% of all prenatally diagnosed malformations) of the.

1. Cystic diseases--the most common genetic kidney diseases 2. Tubulopathies 3. Glomerular diseases--Alport's, CNS, SNRS, Fabry's 4. Other diseases--hypertension, urinary tract malformations, nephrolithiasis, mineral disorders Polygenic diseases include: 1. FSGS in African Americans 2. Diabetic nephropathy 3. Hypertensio Find out which congenital dog diseases are most common, how you can identify them & how you can lessen their effects. There is only so much one can do to prevent diseases in dogs, but the 1st thing you can do is to learn about genetic dog diseases, so you know what to look out for in certain breeds

If you have problems viewing PDF files, download the latest version of Adobe Reader. For language access assistance, contact the NCATS Public Information Officer. Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) - PO Box 8126, Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8126 - Toll-free: 1-888-205-231 Background Surveillance of congenital anomalies is important to identify potential teratogens. Methods This study analysed the prevalence of 61 congenital anomaly subgroups (excluding chromosomal) in 25 population-based EUROCAT registries (1980-2012). Live births, fetal deaths and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly were analysed with multilevel random-effects Poisson regression models Congenital malformations (CM) are structural, functional, and metabolic defects that develop during the organogenesis period and present at birth or detected later in life [].These malformations are present in 3% of all newborns and responsible for nearly 7% of neonatal deaths worldwide [].Congenital malformations can be caused by genetic, chromosomal, environmental, multifactorial effects. Cystic congenital anomalies involve cysts, saclike structures filled with pus or other fluid that can occur in—and block or otherwise impede different parts of—the biliary system. An example of a cystic anomaly is a choledochal cyst, which is a cyst in the bile duct. Non-cystic congenital anomalies, on the other hand, are abnormalities of. The most common canine congenital heart anomalies include patient ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defects, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, and aortic stenosis. Survey radiography and nonselective (venous) angiography can allow the practicing veterinarian to confirm the diagnosis in many of these patients

Congenital anomalies (birth defects) National Health

In 1973, Quan and Smith 1 described the non-random occurrence of congenital anomalies, including vertebral anomalies, anorectal malformations (ARM), esophageal atresia with or without tracheo. A congenital malformation is an anatomical or structural abnormality present at birth. Congenital malformations may be caused by genetic factors or environmental insults or a combination of the two that occur during prenatal development. Most common congenital malformations demonstrate multifactoria Introduction Congenital anomalies are the fifth leading cause of death in children <5 years of age globally, contributing an estimated half a million deaths per year. Very limited literature exists from low and middle income countries (LMICs) where most of these deaths occur. The Global PaedSurg Research Collaboration aims to undertake the first multicentre, international, prospective cohort. There are several types of congenital anomalies of the female genital tract that can occur in the vagina, ovaries, uterus or cervix. These malformations include: Congenital anomalies of the uterus. Septate uterus—A common congenital uterine abnormality, this condition occurs when a band of muscle or tissue divides a uterus into two sections. Congenital anomalies (CAs) are structural, functional, or metabolic anomalies that originate during intrauterine life and can interfere with the body functions. In Egypt, the prevalence of CAs is increasing. The study aimed to estimate the frequency, describe the types, and identify the possible risk factors of CAs among infants attending the Pediatric University Hospital, Alexandria, Egypt

Copy-Number Disorders Are a Common Cause of Congenital

Congenital anomalies in breech presentation: A nationwide record linkage study the lack of adjustments for common risk factors of congenital anomalies. First, we hypothesize that congenital anomalies are lence and types of congenital anomalies for the early identification of any new environmental factors (teratogens) that potentially. Congenital PA anomalies have a variable presentation which is often dependent on the underlying nature of the vascular abnormality. Although a classification scheme has not been addressed in the literature thus far, a spectrum of findings related to the formation of the pulmonary arteries can be proposed to subdivide these anomalies [ Table 1 ]

cognizant of the common congenital anomalies involving the central airways. Proper identifi - cation and reporting of these fi ndings are a matter of the utmost importance, especially when surgical options in a patient with lung cancer or lung transplantation is under consideration No increased risk of congenital malformations found for any of the 10 antibiotics when compared to 'safe' penicillin exposure ; Compared to no exposure, there was an increased risk of major malformations and cardiac malformations for the following . Pivmecillinam: Major OR 1.13 (95% CI, 1.06 to 1.19) | Cardiac OR 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.28 Congenital anomalies of the esophagus occur in as many as 1 per 3000-5000 births, with esophageal atresia (EA) and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) being the most common types (and, therefore, the types that receive more emphasis). Congenital stenosis or obstruction is also encountered

A new classification of coronary congenital diseases is set to help surgeons identify secondary defects in the operating theatre. The scheme is outlined in a novel European Society of Cardiology. Congenital pulmonary airway malformation is a congenital lung disease that can present from the prenatal period to childhood. Though rare overall, it is the most common type of congenital lung lesion. It is imperative to consider this diagnosis when presenting in its most severe forms and to involve an interprofessional team in managing the. The most common congenital uterine anomaly identified in patients presenting with recurrent, spontaneous abortions is a septate uterus . Septate uterus also has the worst obstetric outcomes of the congenital uterine anomalies, with increased premature birth rates and lower fetal survival rates [2, 4]. Option C is the best response congenital cardiac malformations Description In this request we examined characteristics of pregnant women using modafinil or armodafinil, amphetamines, methylphenidate, or who were unexposed to those medical products in the Sentinel Distributed Database (SDD)

a Karyotype of patient (bl-663-10) showing 45,XX, der(19Cardiac Physiology and Pharmacology | Anesthesia Key

Table 2. Table 2. Exposure to Antiepileptic Drugs in the First Trimester of Pregnancy among Cases and Controls with Congenital Malformations. A total of 37,154 cases, 39,472 controls without. SARS-CoV-2 has tragically shown the cost of a global pandemic. Only a few years earlier, the outbreak of Zika virus in Brazil and elsewhere in South America caught the international community by surprise. There was no epidemiological surveillance for Zika virus established at the time, since the African-origin virus was previously endemic in Africa and Asia only; clinicians either failed to. Also, tethered cord is commonly found in children with split cord malformation or other congenital spinal malformations (01). Identification of these situations is important because of the real potential for neurologic deterioration that exists with split cord pathology, especially if the congenital spinal anomaly is corrected

Andrés HERNÁNDEZ-GARCÍA | Researcher | MStefano SARTORI | Pediatric Neurologist and EpileptologistAPLASIA DE MONDINI PDFRima BADER | Professor of Pediatric and Fetal CardiologyTissue Cleansing Through Establishing Natural Bowel