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Effects of visual impairment on child development

Impact Of Visual Impairment On Development by Chris Strickling Sensory Development For the infant born without sight, the other senses have intermittent input and may appear diminished. The child receives inconsistent, discrete, and generally unverified fragments of information When a visual impairment is present from birth (congenital) it will have a more significant impact on development and learning that if the visual impairment is acquired later in life (adventitious). Loss of vision can affect all areas of development

1. Nurs Mirror. 1980 Jul 3;150(21):30-2. Effects of visual impairment on children: development in sight. Pugh R. PMID: 6155664 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE Presbyopia, glaucoma, cataracts, and AMD all are extremely common and severe eye disorders. They are much more likely to affect silver citizens than they are children. Sometimes though, visual problems can have an even greater impact on those young enough to still be developing physically Development of Children with Vision Impairment A child who suffers from various different types of visualproblems may experience various effects which depend on certain factors. Themost significant factors include the overall functioning level of the child,age at which the medical condition appears, type of visual loss and theseverity of the. impairment can range from severe visual impairment to total blindness. The degree of neurological damage and visual impairment depends upon the me of onset, as well as the locaon and intensity of the insult. It is a condion that indicates that the visual

Social Skill Visual Impairment Social Competence Psychosocial Development Impaired Child These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves Impact of Visual Impairment on Concept Development Understanding how visual impairments impact concept development will help Ms. Milton teach Evan and Emily more effectively. Some researchers estimate that 90% of what young children learn is acquired through visual experiences

In children, a visual impairment affects their overall development, including their motor development and skill acquisition Visual impairment can affect: The child's development of mental processes such as conceptual thought, logical memory and language. His/her perception of the immediate environment, objects, learning resources and other people. The time needed to take in information or perform tasks deficits are specifically related to visual impairment in early childhood (Jan, Freeman, & Scott, 1977; Tirosh et al., 1998). The effects of mothers' behavioral characteristics and emotional status and children's development and visual impairment on the development of children who are visually impaired have bee Visual impairment (VI) in children is a significant public health concern because it negatively affects the children, their family, and the society. 1 Visually impaired children are more susceptible to chronic physical and mental health conditions, social problems, accidents, and mortality. 2 According to World Health Organization (WHO), the estimated global financial cost of VI in terms of loss of earning capacity is between USD 6 trillion and USD 27 trillion.

The inclusion of students with visual impairments in physical education has a significant effect on the students' participation in sports and socialization skills (Lieberman, Houston-Wilson, & Kozub, 2002; Ponchillia, Strause, & Ponchillia, 2002). Furthermore, the likelihood that students with visual impairments will reap the rewards of physical activity increases when they are included in regular education environments (Ponchillia et al., 2002) In fact, around 90% of people with visual impairment are living in developing countries (WHO, 2014). This condition has an impact on the development of people with blind and visual impairment. It results in the child's gross motor skills or mobility skills, social, cognitive and conceptual perception being affected In children, a visual impairment affects their overall development, including their motor development and skill acquisition. Different studies report a delay in gross motor milestones such as head control, sitting, standing, crawling, and walking during the first year of life.1,2 Vision appears to be key to normal postural and motor development i

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  2. Babies might have vision impairment at birth. It can also happen later as a result of disease, injury or a medical condition. The way a child behaves or uses his eyes might be a sign of a problem with the way he sees. Severe vision loss or blindness can affect your child's development and learning
  3. If you notice your child regressing or moving backwards, talk to your doctor right away. Social & Emotional Development Chart. for blind & visually impaired babies & children. Age Group. Milestones. Birth to 3 months. Recognizes caregiver's voice. Can be soothed by voice or touch. Smiles when played with
  4. Vision helps to provide information about nonverbal com munication and also helps provide meaning to language. Students with visual impairments need many hands-on experiences with real objects paired with auditory labels and descriptions and a rich literacy environment (print and/or braille depending on the student's unique needs)
  5. The effect of blindness on child development article is about visual impairment and effects of language development , psychological, behavioral, characteristics and other Issues. The effect of blindness. Human beings have a marvelous capacity for adjusting to a major handicap, such as blindness. But many factors can affect the quality of.
  6. Visual acuity was assessed using a modified nonparametric visual acuity test developed for children with visual impairment to evaluate visual development and visual progress after visual training (Sonksen et al., 1991). Regarding near acuity, the child could detect a white styrofoam ball with a 4-cm diameter at a 20-cm distance against a black.

2,799 children (ages 3-5) with visual impairment ; 24,944 children (ages 6-21) with visual impairment Back to top. Understanding How Children with Visual Impairments Learn. Children with visual impairments can certainly learn and do learn well, but they lack the easy access to visual learning that sighted children have According to Bailey and Head (1993), children with severe visual disabilities will also frequently experience difficulties in a number of developmental areas, including motor skills, communication and language abilities, vision, hearing, and behavioral and intellectual functioning Early support developmental journal for children with visual impairment: The case for a new developmental framework for early intervention. Child: Care, Health and Development, 33, 684 - 690 . doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2214.2007.00798. baby or child, as this is an area that is diffi cult for them, so you need to use all your ingenuity to keep their interest and show pleasure in their success. 1 Sonksen P M, Petrie A and Drew K J Promotion of visual development of severely visually impaired babies: evaluation of a developmentally based programm Cerebral visual impairment (sometimes called cortical visual impairment or CVI) is a disorder caused by damage to the parts of the brain that process vision. If your child has CVI, make sure that they get the support and services they need

The Impact of Blindness & Visual Impairments on

possible effects of visual impairments on the development of literacy skills Incomplete and/or distorted visual information interferes with concept development crucial to growth in literacy skills. Foundation skills, such as oral language and vocabulary usage, may be affected by lack of incidental learning opportunities The development of play - leading to concepts such as conservation, classification and one-to-one correspondence - is also negatively affected by visual impairment. When a child cannot observe others at play, it limits their own skills impairment can range from severe visual impairment to total blindness. The degree of neurological damage and visual impairment depends upon the me of onset, as well as the locaon and intensity of the insult. It is a condion that indicates that the visual These children do not belong in the group of children with cortical visual impairment (CVI), because their visual acuity may be normal or because they have changes in the eyes. Test games designed for diagnosis of early visual processing in the occipital lobe depict processing of sizes and lengths of objects and lines (LEA RECTANGLES GAME.

Effects of visual impairment on children: development in

  1. the most obvious ways in which these children differ from one another are chronological age, age of onset of the visual impairment, the nature of the visual disability and the extent of any residual vision, and the presence of additional disabilities (vide, Tobin, 1994, for a fuller dis cussion of the importance of these classificatory factors)
  2. Visual impairment in infancy: impact on neurodevelopmental and neurobiological processes. Sonksen PM, Dale N. Dev Med Child Neurol, 44(11):782-791, 01 Nov 2002 Cited by: 30 articles | PMID: 12418621. Revie
  3. Background. While the development of motor imagery (MI) has been extensively studied in sighted children, it is not clear how children with different severities of visual impairment (VI) represent motor actions by using the motor representations constructed through the remaining intact senses, especially touch
  4. Effects of Severe Visual Impairment on Development / Patricia Sonksen -- 7. Ophthalmic Management / Alistair R. Fielder -- 8. The Role of the Paediatrician / Martin C.O. Bax -- 9. Community Based Paediatric Management / Jacqueline Nicholson -- 10. Planning a Programme for the Multiply Disabled Child / Janet Edwards -- 11
  5. Myth #3: It is critical that the psychologist have knowledge and experience in evaluating the child with visual impairment prior to testing my child. Myth #4: The presence of a familiar adult during the evaluation will help the child do better on the tests. Myth #5: Growth in any areas will result in improved performance on all types of.
  6. Balance is a child's ability to hold his body parts upright. Balance is part of running, jumping, standing on one leg, bicycling, and ball throwing. As with all motor development, balance develops from head to toe; your child won't be able to sit until he has head and trunk balance or to stand before he also has hip and leg balance
  7. Even though the basic assumption for the provision of integrated education for children with visual impairment, as indicated above, is the importance of integration for development of these children the findings regarding this are inconsistent. Some researchers indicate that segregated educational settings are better for the psychosocial.

How Vision Problems Can Impact Your Child's Social Developmen

3.3. Effects of Visual Impairment on Development The rate and order in which skills develop may differ between children with visual impairment and children without a sight problem. Visual impairment can impede the development of motor skills, cognition, and language.15 Also, the difficultie Volume 1 History andtheory of Teaching Children and Youths with Visual Impairments, New York,AFB Press.Ferrell, K. A (2013 January).Weaving the Mat: Longitutdinal Study ofDevelopment of Children with Visual Impairment [Powerpoint slides] Visual disabilities, as defined by the Individuals with Disabilities Act, is a visual impairment which even with correction, adversely effects a child's educational performance. This blog will focus on different types of visual perception and how a deficit in such may present in a childwe will call these the symptoms View this answer. One way visual impairment can influence cognitive development is by making it harder for children to perceive and learn from their environment. For... See full answer below Social-emotional development has a significant impact on children's well-being and academic achievement. This chapter considers the impact of vision impairment on social-emotional development from an early age and what adults need to be aware of when promoting development in this area

Effects of vision impairment in children Children's

vary due to visual impairment K. Understands the critical role of early intervention for students with visual impairments 1. Describes the effects of early intervention on the development of a child's communication skills 2. Describes the role of early intervention in family support and services III. b.Planning and Managing the Learnin Many children with visual impairments have Braille class, orientation and mobility training, and occupational or physical therapy. deficits in motor development in infants from birth. In Z. Jastrzembrska (Ed.), The effects of blindness and other impairments on early development. (pp. 1-15). New York: American Foundation for the Blind.

Background . An impairment of the visual system at or shortly after birth adversely affects educational performance of children which typically occurs through vision. Limited evidence on the magnitude and causes of visual impairment is one of the reasons for the low priority given to eye care in low-income countries. Objectives . To estimate the prevalence and determine the causes of visual. Children with Visual Impairments Learn Children with visual impairments can certainly learn and do learn well, but they lack the easy access to visual learning that sighted children have. The enormous amount of learning that takes place via vision must now be achieved using other senses and methods. Hands are a primary information-gathering. Family Connect A website created by the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) and the National Association for Parents of Children with Visual Impairments (NAPVI) that gives parents of visually impaired children a place to support each other, share stories and concerns and find resources on raising their children from birth to adulthood

The benefits of baby massage for infants with a visual

a child's physical, intellectual, social and emotional development, there is need for visual screening. Early detection of visual problems will provide a child a child more opportunity for educational success. Detection of visual problems in children involves the teachers, parents and school health personal. Unusual behaviour, poor schoo Cortical Visual Impairment - CVI occurs when the eye cannot make sense of what a child sees. This is a condition that exists in the brain, not in the eyes. Sometimes called cortical blindness, many children can see but can't interpret images. It's caused by head injuries, strokes, and congenital defects in the brain

Children with visual impairments face many challenges when growing up, including the development of social and cognitive playing skills. With fewer opportunities to learn from observation and imitation, these children may experience difficulties in joint attention, understanding non-verbal behavior, and cooperative play Children born very preterm are at a greater risk of abnormal visual and neurological development when compared to children born at full term. Preterm birth is associated with retinopathy of prematurity (a proliferative retinal vascular disease) and can also affect the development of brain structures Children with various disabilities may encounter obstacles when playing and learning through play, but with help from a parent or another caring adult, young kids can overcome these barriers. Learn how to aide and encourage children with physical, developmental and verbal disabilities so that they can gain valuable skills Note that this is very different from ocular visual impairment. Your child might have ocular impairment, too, and it's important to understand if your child's visual impairment is more likely related to a problem with processing of information at the level of the brain, or how the image is focused in the eye Effects of Hearing Loss on Development. Hearing is critical to speech and language development, communication, and learning. Children with listening difficulties due to hearing loss or auditory processing problems continue to be an underidentified and underserved population. The earlier hearing loss occurs in a child's life, the more serious.

Vision Screening - A Shared Vision: Partners in PediatricThe Impact of a Vision Impairment on sensory, motorVisual Processing: How to Recognize a Visual Processing

The Impact of Visual Impairments on Psychosocial Developmen

VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS • Visual impairments, including blindness, means an impairment in vision that, even with corrections, adversely affects a child's educational performance. • This term includes total blindness and partially sighted (IDEA, 1997) The effects of infant massage on at-risk infant or infants with blindness or visual impairment may be profound.. Infant massage provides a platform where the child and the caregiver interact and creates a bond Development and Supportive Interventions for Babies and Young Children with Visual Impairment. Presented on Thursday, 11 November 2010. Impact of Vision on Development. Janis Sugden. The Human Eye. With the person sitting next to you fill in the diagram of the eye that you will find in your pack Children with visual impairments not only need to receive good quality educational support in schools, but good quality home-based educational support. This is because parents and other family members play a key role in the educational development of children with visual impairments Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy contributes to a range of effects in exposed children, including hyperactivity and attention problems, learning and memory deficits, and problems with social and emotional development. The most serious consequence of maternal drinking during pregnancy is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

IRIS Page 3: How Visual Impairments Impact Learnin

Little is known about the course of development of acuity in cerebral visual impairment (CVI), the most common cause of bilateral visual impairment in infants and children. 1 Typically, the ocular structures are healthy and the pupillary responses are brisk. In short, the ocular findings do not explain the child's visual impairment e and female Paralympic swimmers with visual impairment during the 50- and 100-m freestyle events. Methods A video analysis was conducted at the 1996 Paralympic Games in which swimmers competed in three groups based on degree of impairment (S11, S12, and S13; S11 least amount of vision). A video camera placed 25 m from the start, perpendicular to the swimming direction, recorded the. Similarly, Landau found that a child with a visual impairment could not develop concepts when relevant experience was deficient, and if the child's concepts are deficient, the child's learning and understanding of word meanings also will not develop. Although Landau's study was about the language development of children with a visual.

What is Medically Complex, Neurological Conditions? - June

Visual impairment (VI; i.e., low vision or blindness) has an impact on all aspects of a child's development (Warren, 1994). One specific concern to researchers and practitioners in the field of human movement behavior and special education is the impact of VI on the domains of motor development and the learning of complex motor skills (Buell, 1982; Skaggs & Hopper, 1996) The eye and ocular system development is particularly susceptible to the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and can result in visual impairment or blindness. The ocular defects of prenatal ethanol exposure include overall growth deficiencies, retinal defects, and optic nerve hypoplasia (underdevelopment) Visual impairment may effect the specific sequence of gross motor milestone development. This is currently under investigation with Project PRISM. As with all areas of development, the child with vision impairment should be regarded as an individual learner The effect of visual problems on a child's development depends on the severity, type of loss, age at which the condition appears, and overall functioning level of the child. Many children who have multiple disabilities may also have visual impairments resulting in motor, cognitive, and/or social developmental delays This paper examines some of the models used for conceptualizing the possible developmental implications of blindness and severe visual impairment. It takes up the question of the significance in infancy of certain skills and proficiencies, especially motor, that may be impeded by the lack of vision. The paper then addresses such issues for the school age child as access to literacy, with the.

Motor development in visually impaired children

Objectives: To examine how visual impairment affects physical and cognitive function in old age. Design: A longitudinal population-based prospective cohort study. Setting: General practitioner offices at six study centers in Germany. They were observed every 1.5 years over four waves. Participants: Individuals aged 77-101 at follow-up Wave 2 (N = 2,394) Key Points. Question Is economic development associated with increasing child and adolescent visual impairment?. Findings This time series analysis of 7 successive cross-sectional surveys of 1 951 084 participants found that the increasing prevalence of visual impairment in Chinese schoolchildren was associated with indicators of economic development For example, children with cerebral palsy have been found to have a higher prevalence of strabismus, visual impairment due to uncorrected refractive error, eye movement disorders, and visual perceptual deficits than normally sighted children of the same age (Lew et al., 2015; Salt and Sargent, 2014)

The Impact of VI on Learning - VISEN : Visual Impairment

Although the educational services for children with visual impairment in Kenya have expanded to include provision in the integrated school setting, not much research has been done to document the benefits of the integrated programme to the children involved. The researcher used the ex - post - facto design to compare the self - concept of 20 blind children in classes 5 to 7 who had been. Sustaining a visual impairment may have a substantial impact on various life domains such as work, interpersonal relations, mobility and social and mental well-being. How to adjust to the loss of vision and its consequences might be a challenge for the visually impaired person. The purpose of the current study was to explore how younger male ex-Service personnel cope with becoming visually. Simulated visual impairment: Effects on text comprehension and reading speed. Clinical Vision Dobson, V., Luna, B., and Scher, M.S. (1997b). Grating acuity and visual-field development in children with intraventricular hemorrhage. Developmental Medicine and Statistics on children with visual impairments. New York, NY: Lighthouse. Lewkowicz has been researching the importance of visual speech information, or lipreading, in children and babies since long before the pandemic. an even greater impairment, he said, because. Visual impairments can often have indirect effects on children's physical development. Visual impairments do not retard physical development. Motor development does not differ markedly from the child with normal vision in the first few months of life

Autism and Abnormal Development of Brain Connectivity

In summary, blindness or severe visual impairment occur due to the organic disruption of the visual system caused by congenital anomaly or disease and to the deprivation of visual development. The education of the parents on the clinical signs of visual impairment in children is critical because it has been considered that a half of the. VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR TEACHERS . Be knowledgeable about different levels of visual impairment. Near vision refers to difficulties seeing in the 12-16 inch range. This affects a person's ability to read. Far vision is the most commonly detected visual problem. Low vision allows one to perform visual tasks, but with less speed.

Effects of Visual Impairment on Quality of Life in

states that: visual impairment including blindness means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness. Low vision is defined as a mild to moderate visual impairment; visual acuity as measured between 20/70 and 20/200 The visually impaired child needs to determine how to organize this incomplete information and then respond to what may remain a confusing view of the world. The child who is legally blind may not learn to do things by visual imitation, an integral pathway to learning during early development. Thus, her ability to understand basic life concepts. Children who are visually impaired have the same needs and drives as do all children. Children with visual impairments can and do develop positive and wholesome attitudes toward themselves, others, and their visual impairments, despite the prevailing negative and devaluing attitudes often encountered in society. (p. 216)

Worldwide, nearly 300 million people are visually impaired, with 65% of these being aged 50 and older. 1 Visual impairment (VI) is associated with high economic costs. 2 It is expected that the number of individuals with VI (caused by diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma) in old age will increase in the upcoming decades because of population aging. The negative effect of visual impairment on motor development is important to notice early. Supportive motor training should be instituted before marked delays have occurred. With skilful training an infant and child with visual impairment may have normal motor development Social and Emotional Characteristics: Visual impairments impact children's social-emotional development. People develop social behaviors by observing social cues and customs of other people and imitating them. Thus, for students with visual impairment it is required to learn social skills by getting direct and systematic instruction Knowing that early visual loss can have profound effects on a child's motor, social, emotional, and psychological development, Mika could be a very different child today had his journey not included open-minded, supportive, and caring teachers and specialists who believed he should have the same educational opportunities as his peers But, children and youth with visual impairment (both blind and partially sighed) can present delays and difficulties in the language development in areas important for development of reading skills specific to this population and effect different areas of functioning (Corley, Pring

The Impact of Visual Impairment on Human Developmen

Similarly, Bahar (2015) states that visual impaired students may have matching problems and different muscle and motor development rather than normal sight people. Basically, there are some solutions which can recover or reduce visual impairments with glasses, contact lenses, or operation, but that is limited This article reports on a study of the relationship between mother-child interactions and children's development for 18 children, aged 20-36 months with severe visual impairments and no other known.. children, three out of four had at least one other impairment or problem (e.g. learning or medical problem). More than half the total students had complex needs associated with the combination of additional problems with VI. Before being admitted to a specialized school, 44% of these 246 children had attended a mainstream school withou visual impairment 1. 11 Visual ImpairmentVisual Impairment TLSE 240TLSE 240 2. 2 Meaning of VisualMeaning of Visual ImpairmentsImpairments Visually impaired children may be definedVisually impaired children may be defined as those children who suffer from theas those children who suffer from the impaired conditions, difficulties andimpaired conditions, difficulties and deficiencies. Visual impairment. Normal visual acuity is scored as 1. According to the World Health Organization, a corrected visual acuity for the best eye of <0.3 or a visual field of below 30° (normal visual field is 180°) are indicators of visual impairment, and blindness is defined as a visual acuity of <0.05 or a visual field of <10° (Reference Timehin and Timehin van den Broek 2006)

Motor development in visually impaired childre

Whether these visual system impairments are typically the underlying cause of reading difficulties, or the downstream result of other non-visual impairments, has been fiercely debated for decades. This debate is unlikely to be resolved anytime soon: Complex, developmental disorders like dyslexia are rarely explained by a single causal factor Blindness. Birth defects affect the structure or function of parts or systems in the body and this can result in many different developmental and health problems. Birth defects which affect the sensory organs are known as sensory birth defects; the most common examples include cataracts, visual impairment, blindness and hearing loss Support and advice should be obtained from the local authority Visual Impairment Service. The child is first and foremost a child whose development will be individual no matter what level of vision impairment. Vision is the major source of information, stimulating curiosity, integrating information and inviting exploration The visually impaired person must build concepts on the basis of others than visual information. Foulke (1962) quoted by Margaret et al. (1989, p. 162) noted that the nature of the concepts of the visually impaired child is in some ways more restricted than those of the sighted child

The degree and type of hearing impairment impact on a child's development. Other factors can further exacerbate the consequences of hearing impairment. For example, some children have additional sensory disabilities and/or associated neurological disorders that further interfere with perceiving and processing information vision loss in children - there are many diseases, defects, malformations, infections and disorders that can affect the visual system in infants. Seeing is an important way for infants to learn. Vision impairment can influence the normal development of body control, hand use, language and social behaviours Visual impairment in children can range from mild to severe to profound. The resources a parent needs will depend on the degree of his or her child's visual impairment. Types of children's visual impairments. More than 500,000 U.S. children are visually impaired, according to the American Foundation for the Blind. This number includes kids up. Approximately 6.8% of children, or roughly 5 million children, have a diagnosed vision problem, and nearly 2 million children in the US experience visual impairment or blindness. It can be difficult to evaluate the effect of visual impairments on a child's quality of life and function

Impaired visual function is linked to diminished life span in children with Cerebral Palsy. Current studies are focused on determining whether the actual visual impairment is responsible for shortened life expectancy, or whether visual impairment is indicative of a separate brain injury that may be life threatening in itself Free Online Library: Outcomes and opportunities: a study of children with cortical visual impairment.(Research Report, Report) by Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness; Health, general Asphyxia Complications and side effects Child development Pediatrics Practice Vision disorders Care and treatment Diagnosis Risk factor Abstract. This paper discusses a proposed instruction model for intervention of social skills children with visual impairment. Intervention model based on Badura's Social Cognitive Learning Theory w ere proposed to help students with visual impairment in the development of their social skills. The emphasis of the theory was based on imitation, environment and cognition

A child born with hearing and visual impairment is negatively affected especially in regard to sensory development. This is because other senses appear to diminish. For instance, the child gets inconsistent, unverified as well as discrete fragments of information Diabetes affects the small blood vessels in the retina. When damaged this leads to impairment of vision. This is the commonest cause of blindness and visual impairment in the United States. An. Visual impairment is a term experts use to describe any kind of vision loss, whether it's someone who cannot see at all or someone who has partial vision loss. In the year 1260 peoples perspective of the visually impaired changed. King louis the ninth of France established the first organization for the blind

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Early Intervention services are essential for the early childhood development of children with deafblindness. Through hearing screening, visual testing, multi-sensory stimulation, functional visual training, speech therapy and physiotherapy, the child's chances of reaching his or her maximum potential increase significantly Management of visual impairment in childhood requires input from such a wide range of medical and nonmedical disciplines that the delivery of coordinated and appropriate care presents serious problems. This book is a practical guide to the day-to-day management of children with this difficult problem. Written in accessible language with a minimum of jargon, it is intended for both a medical. A student or child with deafness or hard-of-hearing disabilities has deficits in language and speech development due to a diminished or lack of auditory response to sound. Students will demonstrate varying degrees of hearing loss which often results in difficulty acquiring spoken language. When you have a child with hearing loss/deafness in your classroom, you need to be careful not to assume. Therefore, efforts to grasp the effects of violence exposure on children also must evaluate the context in which the child is embedded. A third issue is that the effects of violence exposure are developmentally contingent. Children face specific challenges at different points in development It may be said that visual impairment is the functional limitation of the eye or eyes or the vision system. This leads to (1-5) -. Loss of visual acuity and inability of the person to see. Normal interactions require tremendous attention for the child with hearing loss. Listening becomes a multi-sensory task, involving a much greater level of visual and general attention than it does for those with normal hearing. While the child may communicate effectively, it requires a great deal of energy to do so